Composition and structure of liquid crystal display devices (1)

by:Kimeery     2021-08-20
The figure below is a structural diagram of a reflective TN-type liquid crystal display. As can be seen from the figure above, the LCD screenis a liquid crystal cell made of two pieces of conductive glass, filled with liquid crystal, and surrounded by sealing material-glue The frame (usually epoxy resin) is sealed, and polarizers are pasted on the two outer sides of the box. The interval between the upper and lower glass sheets in the liquid crystal cell, which is commonly referred to as the cell thickness, is generally several microns (the diameter of human accuracy is tens of microns). The inner side of the upper and lower glass sheets, corresponding to the display pattern, is plated with a transparent tin oxide-tin oxide (ITO for short) conductive film, which is the display electrode. The main function of the electrode is to allow external electrical signals to be applied to the liquid crystal through it. The entire display area inside the glass sheet in the liquid crystal cell is covered with an alignment layer. The function of the alignment layer is to align the liquid crystal molecules in a specific direction. The alignment layer is usually a thin layer of high molecular organic material and is rubbed; it can also be prepared by vacuum evaporation of silicon oxide film on the glass surface at a certain angle. The TN type LCD screenis filled with positive nematic liquid crystals. The orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is to make the long rod-shaped liquid crystal molecules arranged in a fixed direction parallel to the glass surface, and the direction of the long axis of the molecules is along the direction of the orientation treatment. The orientation directions of the upper and lower glass surfaces are perpendicular to each other, so that in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the glass sheet, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules in the cell is gradually distorted, from the upper glass sheet to the lower glass sheet by 90° (as shown in the figure below). This is the origin of the name of the twisted nematic liquid crystal display.
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