LCD backlight technology

by:Kimeery     2021-09-03
LCD is a non-luminous display device, and it needs a backlight to achieve the display function. In addition to the performance of the backlight will directly affect the image display quality of the LCD, its cost accounts for 3% to 5% of the LCD module, and the power consumption accounts for 75% of the LCD module, so it can be said to be equivalent to the LCD module. Important components. High-definition, large-size LCDs must be matched with high-performance backlight technology. Therefore, as the LCD industry strives to open up new application areas, the high-performance backlight technology (such as high brightness, low cost, low power consumption) Thinning, thinning, etc.) is extremely important. The LCD module system is mainly composed of light source, light guide plate, optical film and plastic frame. It is divided into edge-light type and bottom-backlight type according to different light source distribution positions. As the backlight source of LCD, in order to ensure the quality of the display picture, it should have the properties of high brightness, uniform light emission, large illumination angle, adjustable, high efficiency, low power consumption, long life, light and thin. The LCD backlights currently in use and under development mainly include CCFL, EL, and white LED. Compared with CCFL and EL backlights, white LED backlights have many advantages such as high brightness, high color purity, long life, strong adaptability, good reliability, low cost, and easy industrialization. With the development of technology, white LED will become the most ideal backlight source for LCD. The core technology in the light source module is the optical technology of the light guide plate. At present, there are mainly two types of light guide plate forms: printing and injection molding. Other forms such as injection molding and printing, laser dotting, and corrosion account for a small proportion and are not suitable for batches. Production principles. Because of its low cost, printing has been the mainstream technology for a long time in the past, but low qualified products have always been its main disadvantage. At present, LCD products require a more precise light guide structure, and injection molded light guides will inevitably become the backlight source. The development is mainstream, but only a few factories can overcome the corresponding mold technical problems. 1. Edge-light type The edge-light type is a backlight made of a line or point light source placed on the side of a specially designed light guide plate. According to the needs of actual use, it can be made into a two-sided or even a three-sided. Edge-light type backlights can generally be made very thin, but the light utilization rate of the light source is relatively small, and the thinner the light source, the smaller the utilization rate, the maximum is about 50%. The core of its technology is the design and production of light guide plates. The most commonly used light sources for edge-light type are white LED backlight and CCFL backlight. Among the white LED edge-light backlights produced by Weizhi Company, WU, WH, WN types are unilateral, and WL, WJ, Wk, and WB types are bilateral. As LCD modules continue to develop in the direction of being brighter, lighter, and thinner, edge-lit LCD backlights have become the mainstream of current backlight development. 2. Bottom backlight type Bottom backlight type is a flat surface light source with a certain structure. It can be a continuous and uniform surface light source, such as EL or flat fluorescent lamp, or a surface light source composed of more point light sources, such as White light LED dot matrix backlight. EL backlight is electroluminescence, which is a cold light source that relies on the intrinsic luminescence of phosphors excited by an alternating electric field. Its biggest advantage is its thinness, which can be 0.2-0.6mm in thickness. Its shortcomings are low brightness, short life span (usually 3,000 to 5,000 hours), it needs inverter circuit drive, and it will also appear flicker and noise due to the interference of the circuit. The driving circuit of EL backlight has two types: inverter and Driver IC. Because the frequency and load output voltage of the current Driver IC cannot reach the typical operating conditions of EL (400Hz, AC100V), the brightness is lower than that of the inverter drive. Recently, white light (full-color) EL has been developed one after another as LCD backlight. However, due to its low brightness, it is basically used for small size mobile LCDscreen displays below 4 inches, such as mobile phones, PDAs, and game consoles. The advantage of using white LED as a backlight source is its good brightness and uniformity, but the disadvantage is that its thickness is large (greater than 4.0mm), and the heating phenomenon is obvious when a large number of white LEDs are used.
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