Structure of twisted nematic liquid crystal display

by:Kimeery     2021-09-01
Now let’s take a look at the structure of a twisted nematic liquid crystal display. At the bottom, the mobile LCDscreen molecules are aligned with the surface of the alignment layer, and the direction of the long axis of the molecules is perpendicular to the paper surface. At the top, the mobile LCDscreen molecules have a 90° twist, and their long axis direction is parallel to the paper surface. Here we will not discuss this 90° distortion too much. This distortion is a mechanical distortion, not the rotation of the polarizing plane. We can divide this space into different areas, and use electric fields to control each area. These different areas are called pixels or sub-pixels. Color filters can be placed behind each sub-pixel, and when light passes through, different colors can be obtained. When the three color filters of red, green, and blue are put on, a full-color display can be formed. The liquid crystal molecules are aligned with the alignment layer and are not twisted. But you can imagine that the rubbed alignment layer enables the liquid crystal layer to be aligned along the alignment grooves. The two surfaces cross at 45°, so the angle between the polarization angle and the liquid crystal molecules is 45°. Therefore, after the light wave enters the liquid crystal layer, the polarization plane is rotated by 90° due to the difference between the component vibrating along the long axis and the component vibrating along the short axis. After the light wave passes through the bottom and passes through the mobile LCDscreen layer, the light wave will either pass through or stop depending on the direction of the polarizer. Since we make the directions of the upper and lower polarizers perpendicular to each other, when the light wave passes through the liquid crystal layer and is rotated by 90°, it passes through the second polarizer, and this mode becomes a constant light mode. In this mode, when no electric field is applied, the liquid crystal molecules are in a steady-state position, which rotates the light wave by 90° to allow the light wave to pass through.
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