TN type LCD screen
device is also called 'twisted nematic (TN) displayThe liquid crystal display devices used in common watches, digital meters, electronic clocks, and most calculators are all TN-type devices. Generally, as long as the liquid crystal display devices used for pen-segment digital display are mostly TN-type devices. Therefore, this device should be the most well-known liquid crystal display. The basic structure principle of the TN type liquid crystal display device is: the glass with the ITO transparent conductive layer is lithographically printed on a certain transparent plate pattern, and the two glass substrates with the transparent conductive electrode pattern are sandwiched between the front and rear glass substrates. The nematic liquid crystal material with positive dielectric anisotropy is sealed around to form a flat liquid crystal cell with a thickness of only a few microns. Since the inner surface of the glass is coated with a layer of alignment layer film and has been oriented, the liquid crystal molecules in the cell are arranged in parallel along the surface of the glass. However, because the orientation processing directions of the alignment layers on the inner surfaces of the two pieces of glass are perpendicular to each other, the liquid crystal molecules are twisted at 90° between the two pieces of glass. This is the origin of the name of the twisted nematic liquid crystal display device. Figure 1 shows the structure of a TN-type liquid crystal display device, and Figure 2 shows its principle diagram. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of typical TN liquid crystal display device structure (1) Schematic diagram of TN-type device molecular arrangement and light transmission (2) Schematic diagram of TN-type electro-optical effect Figure 2 Schematic diagram of TN-type liquid crystal display device The twisted screw moment of the liquid crystal molecules in the cell is much larger than the wavelength of visible light. Therefore, when linearly polarized light with the same or orthogonal alignment direction of the liquid crystal molecules on one side of the glass surface enters, the polarization direction of the liquid crystal layer passes through the entire liquid crystal layer. Then it will be twisted 90° and emitted from the other side, so this liquid crystal cell has the function and function of blocking light between parallel polarizers, blocking light between orthogonal polarizers, and transmitting light between orthogonal polarizers . If a voltage is applied to the liquid crystal cell and reaches a certain value at this time, the long axis of the liquid crystal molecules will start to tilt along the direction of the electric field. The liquid crystal molecules between the electrodes all become rearranged along the direction of the electric field. At this time, the 90° optical rotation function disappears, and the optical rotation function is lost between the orthogonal polarizers. Make the device not transparent. Because the surface between the parallel polarizers loses its optical rotation, the device can no longer block light. Therefore, if we place the liquid crystal cell between orthogonal or parallel polarizers, we can use the method of energizing the liquid crystal cell to change the transmission-shielding state of the light, thereby realizing display. Usually, the black characters that appear when we see the liquid crystal display device are not caused by the liquid crystal changing color, but because the liquid crystal display device allows light to pass through or be absorbed.
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